1. Area of Operation (FOI)
    1. Learning Theory –                                                                  

                                                              i.      Learning – a change in behavior as a result of experience

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (1-3)

                                                            ii.      Basis of Learning – all learning comes from perceptions that are based off of the five senses…experience.(perception of experience)

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (1-4)

                                                          iii.      Perception – bits of information + meaning = perception.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (G-8) (1-4)

                                                          iv.      Insight – relating of perceptions into meaningful wholes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (G-10)

                                                            v.      Motivation – MOST dominant force for governing the student’s progress. 

1.      Defined – condition that exists in the learner when he values the objective of instructional unit and wants it.

2.      Positive – promised rewards of achievement

3.      Negative – less effective, re-proof, criticism, for a fault

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (G-11,12) (1-4)

                                                          vi.      Learning characterized by…

1.      Purposeful – each student is different and has different goals

2.      is a result of experience – comes only thru individual experience

3.      is Multifaceted – verbal, perceptual, conceptual, emotional

4.      is an active process – to learn you must react and respond

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (1-3)

                                                        vii.      Laws of Learning                                                       

1.      Readiness – student will learn best when they are ready

2.      Exercise – reps best remembered.

3.      Effect – learning is enhanced when a good feeling is accompanied

4.      Primacy – things first learned create a strong impression.

5.      Intensity – vivid learning experience teaches more than a dull one.

6.      Recency – things recently leaned are best remembered.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (1-3,4)

                                                      viii.      Levels of Learning

1.      Rote – the ability to repeat back something.

2.      Understanding – perceiving and learning what has been taught.

3.      Application – achieving the skill to apply and perform it correctly, minimum satisfactory level.

4.      Correlation – associating what has been learned with other tins previously learned.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (1-5)

5.      Domains

a.       Cognitive – knowledge

b.      Affective – attitudes beliefs

c.       Psychomotor – physical skill

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (G-14)

                                                          ix.      Learning Physical Skills

1.      Perceptions change as the skill becomes easier.

2.      Desire to learn – motivation

3.      A pattern to follow – best prep is a step by step approach.

4.      Perform the skill – student should coordinate between muscles and vis/tactile senses

5.      Knowledge of results – students should be up dated on their progress.

6.      Progress is patterned – rapid improvement followed by a level off.

7.      Duration of lesson – not too long or short

8.      Evaluation vs Critique – in beginning, practical suggestions are more valuable than grades.

9.      Application of skill – student must use what is learned to the point that it becomes ez.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (1-5)

                                                            x.      Memory

1.      Help memory

a.       Praise – stims remembering

b.      Recall – aided by association

c.       Intensity – vivid

d.      Good Attitude

e.       Use of all our senses

f.       Exercise

2.      Hurts memory

a.       Disuse – forget what is not used

b.      Interference – something forgotten because another experience overshadows it

c.       Represed – opposite of Law of effect.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (G-15)

                                                          xi.      Transfer of learning

1.      Positive – habits carried over that are useful and correct for performing new tasks (Building Block)

2.      Negative – habits that hinder the correct performance of that new task.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (G-13)

    1. Human behavior and Effective Communication

                                                              i.      Human Needs

1.      Physical

2.      safety

3.      social egoistic

4.      self fulfillment

                                                            ii.      Defense Mechanisms

1.      Rationalization – make excuses

2.      Flight – run away physically or mentally

3.      Aggression – becomes aggressive, or stops plying all together, irrelevant questions.

4.      Projection – blame others

5.      Compensation – emphasize a good attribute in order to cover for another.

6.      Reaction formation – (who-cares-how-others feel) attitude

7.      Resignation – quit

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (1-8)

                                                          iii.      Effective communication

1.      Elements

a.       Source - teacher

b.      Symbol – words-pictures

c.       Receiver – student

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (1-8)

2.      Barriers

a.       Lack of common experience

b.      Confusion between symbols

c.       Overuse of Abstractions

d.      Interference – something new overshadows something old. 

3.      Developing Communication skills

a.       Be a good listener so you can relate – common experience

b.      Take notes

c.       Listen for main ideas

d.      Be ready to listen       

    1. The Teaching Process

                                                              i.      Preparation – Objective, procedures and facilities used during lesson, Goals to obtain, standards for evaluation.

                                                            ii.      Presentation –

1.      Description of the skill, desired outcome in a measurable means.

2.      Conditions- framework under which the skill is demonstrated

3.      Criteria – standard used to measure the skill

4.      Types of presentation

a.       Lecture

b.      Demonstration

c.       Guided Question  

                                                          iii.      Application – Of the material by the student

                                                          iv.      Evaluation – of performance by the instructor

1.      1 v 1

2.      Group

3.      Student led

    1. Teaching Methods

                                                              i.      Organizing Material

1.      Introduction

a.       Attention getter – get the students attention

b.      Motivation – appeal to the student personally

                                                                                                                                      i.      Appeal to the benis of flying

c.       Overview – outline what is to be learned and make it clear what the objectives are.

2.      Development (body)

a.       Develop the material to obtaint he fore stated goals

3.      Conclusion

a.       Retrace the elements of the lesson.

                                                            ii.      Common teaching methods

1.      Lecture – used to introduce new material, summery, show relationships between theory and practice.

2.      Guided discussion – lead off questions allow students to share and the instructor to guide them using questions

a.       Types of questions used

                                                                                                                                      i.      Overhead- entire group

                                                                                                                                    ii.      Rhetorical – stimulate thought

                                                                                                                                  iii.      Direct – get a response from a specific person

                                                                                                                                  iv.      Reverse – Instructor redirects students question to the group

                                                                                                                                    v.      Relay – instructor redirects students question to the group.

3.      Demonstration – we learn by doing

a.       Essential Phases

                                                                                                                                      i.      Explanation

                                                                                                                                    ii.      Demonstration

                                                                                                                                  iii.      Student performance

                                                                                                                                  iv.      Instructor Supervision

                                                                                                                                    v.      Evaluation

4.      Cooperative or group learning – small groups, continual active participation

5.      CBT – allows the student to progress at their own pace

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (O-1-11,14)

    1. Critique and Evaluation

                                                              i.      Critique – should give the student something constructive to build on.

1.      Objective- focus on performance nothing else

2.      Flexible – fit in time, technique, and content to the student

3.      Acceptable – students must accept you first.

4.      Comprehensive – cover the majors

5.      Well organized – follow a pattern

6.      Thoughtful – geared toward the student (self esteem and motivation)

7.      Specific – Comments and recommendations should be specific.

8.      Methods

a.       Instructor-student – instructor leads a group discussion

b.      Student-student – student to student 

c.       Student led – student to instructor

d.      Small group – class divided into small groups where they critique a specific area

e.       Self critique – self

f.       Written – is more detailed, student can keep the critique to judge progress

9.      Critique should…(in bold above)

a.       In time allotted

b.      Specific

c.       Comprehensive

d.      Consistent

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (G-20)(O-1-15,16)

                                                            ii.      Evaluation

1.      Types of Questions

a.       Oral

                                                                                                                                      i.      Questions to be avoided

1.      Irrelevent, unclear, too general, Puzzle questions, Trick Q’s.

b.      Written

                                                                                                                                      i.      Reliability – consistent results

                                                                                                                                    ii.      Validity - measurable

                                                                                                                                  iii.      Usability – easy to understand

                                                                                                                                  iv.      Comprehensiveness – sample that being measured

                                                                                                                                    v.      Discrimination – detects small differences.

2.      Responses to student questions

a.       Don’t lie

3.      Use PTS

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (G-21)(O1-15, 16)      

                                                          iii.      Flight Instructor Characteristics

1.      Aviation Instructor responsibilities in… 

a.       Providing adequate instruction according to the PTS and students abilities.

b.      Use PTS to set standard of performance

c.       Emphasize the positive

2.      Flight Instructor

a.       Providing adequate instruction according to the PTS and students abilities.

b.      Use PTS to set standard of performance

c.       Emphasize the positive

3.      Professionalism

a.       Explain important personal characteristics (ie. Good judgment and no pride.)

b.      Describe methods of minimizing student frustration.

                                                                                                                                      i.      Ie emphasizing the benis of flight      

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (O-1-18,19)    

                                                          iv.      Planning Instructional Activity

1.      Develop objectives and practice towards the standards set forth

2.      Use Building Block Theory

3.      Training syllabus

4.      Purpose and characteristics of a lesson plan

  1. Technical Subject Areas
    1. Aero medical Factors

                                                              i.      Obtaining a medical certificate – Obtain it before flight instruction begins, visit your local AME (Aviation Medical Examiner.

                                                            ii.      Medical deficiency – in the event one should,          

1.      write for reconsideration to the AME and duplicate it and send it to the Federal Air Surgeon

2.      within 30 days

    1. Medical Factors

                                                              i.      Hypoxia – lack of Oxygen to the brain

1.      Cause – high altitude

2.      Symptoms – Euphoria, dizziness

3.      Treatment – use Oxygen, take deep breathes

a.       12.5 – 14000 - 30 min

b.      14.0 – all the time Crew

c.       15.0 – all persons all the time

d.      Night – 5.0 (suggested)

                                                            ii.      Hyperventilation – lack pf CO2

1.      Cause – Stress

2.      Symptoms –rapid breathing, dizzy, tingly, blurred vision

3.      Treatment – take deep breathes, slow the breathing rate

                                                          iii.      Middle Ear Pain – Outside P greater than inside causes the eardrum to bulge inward.

1.      Cause Unequal P, to fast a descent, decompression?

2.      Symptoms – severe pain in the ear

3.      Treatment – Introduce air P into the inner ear via the Eustachian tube by closing nose and blowing.

                                                          iv.      Motion Sickness – car sick, air sick,

1.      Cause - due to continued stimulation of the inner ear (balance)

2.      Symptoms – sick to the stomach, want to throw up.

3.      Treatment –

a.       give them a distant point to focus on

b.      give them something to do.

c.       Relief Band

                                                            v.      Alcoho            l – Depressant, altitude compounds its effects

1.      Cause - drinking

2.      Symptoms -  hangovers

3.      Treatment – don’t drink

4.      8 hrs bottle to throttle

                                                          vi.      Carbon Monoxide

1.      Cause – exhaust gas

2.      Symptoms – headache, dizziness, drowsy

3.      Treatment – turn off the heater

                                                        vii.      Scuba Diving

1.      Cause – nitrogen in the blood

2.      Symptoms – The bends

3.      Treatment – wait to fly

a.       12 hours if not a controlled Ascent and below 8000 feet

b.      24 hours if controlled ascent or flying higher than 8000 feet.

                                                      viii.      Fatigue/Stress

                                                          ix.      Dehydration

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (0-3-3,4)

    1. Visual scanning

                                                              i.      Physical Condition, Im Physically and mentally SAFE…?

1.      I – Illness

2.      M - Medication

3.      S – stress

4.      A - Alcohol

5.      F - fatigue

6.      E - emotionally

                                                            ii.      Degradation of Sight

1.      Visibility – smoke, haze, dust, or rain…

2.      Windshield condition – buggy

3.      Bright Illumination – reflects off clouds, snow, and desert terrain.

4.      Dim illumination – aeronautical charts – red at night

5.      Dark adaptation – rods take 30 min to fully adjust, cones only 10.

                                                          iii.      Optical Illusions

1.      Runway Width

a.       Narrow – think you are high

b.      Up sloping – think you re high

c.       Wide – think you are low

d.      Down sloping – think you are low

2.      Featureless terrain – think you are high.

                                                          iv.      Vestibular and visual illusions

1.      “leans” – abrupt rollout after a gradual turn in which makes you think you are turning for the 1st time.

                                                            v.      Proper visual scanning

1.      Day – 10 degrees for 1 sec each on a spot let your cones do the work

2.      Night – slowly scan the area let your rods work (30 min in dark room before flight) (oxygen if above 5k ft)

                                                          vi.      Time – 4:1, 4 seconds outside for every second inside.

                                                        vii.      See and Avoid always maintain vigilance IFR or VFR

1.      Faster the a/c the more likely you are to hit something

2.      When you are around an airport you have the highest chance of collision

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (O-3-4,6)

    1. Principals of Flight

                                                              i.      4 forces

1.      Lift - Force created by the airfoil that acts upward thru the CP

a.       Newton

b.      Bernoulli

2.      Gravity - weight of the a/c acting to the center of the earth

3.      Thrust -Forward acting force created by the prop pushing air

4.      Drag -backward acting force created by the A/c and lift.

                                                            ii.      Wing

1.      Airfoil – any surface designed to create lift inflight

2.      AOA – Chord line and relative wind

3.      Angle of incidence – Chord line and longitudinal Axis

4.      Chamber – curve of the wing

5.      Chord Line – line from the trailing edge of the a/c to the LE

6.      Wing platform – shape of the wing from above

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (O-3-7)

                                                          iii.      Flight Attitudes

1.      Turns -

a.       Up aileron = drag

b.      Down aileron = lift (where there is lift there is drag)-Adverse Aileron Yaw, therefore rudder

c.       = bank in the direction of drag (diff braking)

2.      Straight and Level –

a.       Forces must be in balance

b.      Nose up a little, vector quantities

3.      Slow flight

a.       Wing not producing as much lift

                                                                                                                                      i.      Nose high so the prop is producing more vertical vector force

                                                          iv.      Stability - The ability of an object to return to its original state after being disturbed.

1.      Dynamic

a.       Positive

b.      Neutral

c.       Negative

2.      Static

a.       Positive

b.      Neutral

c.       Negative

3.      Longitudinal – prop to tail control of effectiveness - ailerons

4.      Lateral – wing to wing control of effectiveness – elevators

a.       Also downwash from wings on the horizontal stabilizer, at a certain speed this will be just enough.

5.      Vertical – up and down control of effectiveness – rudder

                                                            v.      Torque Effect

1.      Torque of propeller – the right motion of the Prop and engine rolls the ac to the left

2.      Gyroscopic effect of the propeller –

3.      Corkscrew effect – prop wash hit the vertical stabilizer and causes a yaw to the left

4.       Asymmetrical loading – at high AOA the bite of the Prop is more pronounced on the downward swing creating a pull to the left.

                                                          vi.      Load factors

1.      At slow speeds the A/c will stall before getting into a structurally critical position

2.      At high speeds the Aircraft may suddenly find itself beyond safe limits.

3.      CG – aft but still in limits – faster cruise speed, slower stall, may rotate early, harder to recover from a stall.

4.      CG – fore but still in limits – slower cruise speed, faster stall,  harder to flare-rotate, ez stall recovery

                                                        vii.      Wing tip Vortices

1.      Land after

2.      Takeoff before

3.      stay clear of the downwind

4.      most pronounced at slow clean configuration

    1. Airplane flight Controls

                                                              i.      Primary flight Controls –

1.      elevators for the lateral axis

2.      ailerons for the longitudinal axis

3.      Rudder for the vertical axis

                                                            ii.      Trim Controls

1.      Used to alleviate the pilot from maintaining constant presseure on the controls.  They are located on the ailerons, rudder, and elevators.

2.      Usually work opposite the control surface

a.       ie trim up, tab moves opposite the control surface.

                                                          iii.      Wing Flaps – Moveable on the inboard trailing edge of the wing, useful for slowing down, increasing lift, and approaching the field at a higher decent profile.

1.      Fowler

a.       creates lift at first moving backward

b.      moves back and down

c.       slower stall speed results from the slot it creates.

2.      Split

a.       creates more drag then plain

3.      Plain 

a.       extended creates lift and drag

b.      increase in lift and drag – most common

4.      Slotted

a.       produces more lift than drag

b.      lower stall speed

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (o-3-13)

                                                          iv.      Weight and Balance

1.      Datum – Imaginary vertical plane at the fore of the aircraft where all arms are measured from.

2.      Arm – The horizontal distance in Inches from the station chosen to the datum plane.

3.      Basic Operating Weight – A/c + Crew, no payload or fuel.

4.      Center of Gravity – Point where you could hold the entire a/c on a point, also where weight works (gravity)

5.      CG Limits – limits from Datum that CG can be in.

6.      CG Ranger – Range of the limits

7.      Empty Weight – A/c + unusable fuel and oil

8.      Fuel Load – Expendable

9.      Moment – the distance from Datum to the station , times its weight.

10.  Station – local on the a/c that tells you the arm.

11.  Useful Load – Max t/o weight - Empty weight – crew, px, usable fuel and oil,

12.  Overloaded

a.       Higher t/o speed

b.      Longer t/o roll

c.       Reduced angle of climb

d.      Shorter range

e.       Reduced cruise

f.       Higher stall

g.      Longer landing roll

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (O-3-15)

    1. Navigation and flight planning

                                                              i.      3 ways to navigate

1.      Pilotage – reference visible landmarks

2.      Dead Reckoning – computing distance, direction, and time from point.

3.      Radio Nav aids – VORs, GPS, ILS

                                                            ii.       Terms

1.      Isogonic lines – points of equal magnetic variation

2.      Magnetic Variation – error due to the fact that the True North and Magnetic North are not at the same point.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (O 3-17)

3.      Magnetic Deviation – deflection of the compass due tot the electrical components in the panel

4.      Course – Intended pat of the Aircraft

5.      Heading – the way the aircraft is pointed

6.      Track the actual path of the a/c

7.      Drift Angle – angle between the heading and track

                                                          iii.      Compass Heading

1.      TC +/- WCA = TH +/- VAR = MH +/- DEV = CH

                                                          iv.      Describing the process of Planning a X-C

1.      Preflight Briefing – latest WX, Airport, and Enroute Nav Aid information.

2.      Draw Course Line and mark Checkpoints

3.      Enter checkpoints on the log

4.      Enter Nav Aids on the log

5.      Enter VOR course on the log

6.      Enter ALT

7.      Enter Wind

8.      Measure TC

9.      compute TAS

10.  Compute WCA and Ground Speed

11.  determine variation

12.  determine deviation

13.  Enter CH

14.  Measure Dist on chart

15.  Figure ETE and ETA

16.  Calc fuel burn and usage

17.  Compute weight and balance

18.  Compute t/o and landing balance

19.  Complete a flight planning form

20.  File with FSS

                                                            v.      Diverting to an Alternate

1.      consider dist to all ALTs

2.      make MC for ALT divert

3.      WCA

4.      Distance

    1. Night Flight

                                                              i.      Take care of your eyes

                                                            ii.      Preflight

1.      Study Wx esp T/dt spread

2.      Check lights

3.      make sure you have a back up flashlight

                                                          iii.      Start-up and Taxi

1.      Clear the area well

2.      Taxi slowly

                                                          iv.      T/o and Departure

1.      reach  a safe altitude before turning out

                                                            v.      Approach to Land

1.      Avoid a long low final

2.      DG aligned

3.      Altimeter set

    1. High Altitude Operation

                                                              i.      Altitudes

1.      12.5 – crew after 30 min

2.      14.0 – Crew

3.      15.0 – All PX

                                                            ii.      Types of Oxygen

1.      Use Aviation Oxygen only

2.      Other Oxygen has too much water which will condence and freeze in the lines at high altitude

                                                          iii.      Types of Masks

1.      Continuous Flow

2.      Diluter Demand

    1. FAR
    2. National Airspace

                                                              i.      A

                                                            ii.      B

                                                          iii.      C

                                                          iv.      D

                                                            v.      E

                                                          vi.      G

                                                        vii.      Special Use Airspace

1.      Prohibited Area

a.       No Flight

2.      Restricted Area

a.       Must have permission

                                                                                                                                      i.      VFR

                                                                                                                                    ii.      IFR –may be cleared around

b.      Invisible Hazards

3.      Military Operation Area

a.       VFR fly thru at own risk

b.      IFR – cleared thru or around

                                                                                                                                      i.      Set up to separate military traffic from IFR

4.      Warning Area

a.       3 miles outside of National Airspace

b.      Flight plan recommended

5.      Alert Area

a.       Airspace containing a high volume of aerial activity

b.      VFR at own risk

c.       IFR cleared thru or around

6.      Controlled Firing Area (CFA)

a.       Firing Artillery or something to that effect

b.      Spotters

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (O 3-29,30)

    1. Navigation Aids and Radar Services

                                                              i.      RNAV – category of enhanced Area navigation

1.      VOR – VHF station projects 360 degrees of radials, VORTAC provides DME (Distance Measuring Equipment) measures in slant range.

2.      NDB – Non Directional Beacon – Low to medium radio frequency. Allows you to home to the beacon by the use of an ADF (Automatic Directional Finder)

3.      GPS – Global positioning System – gives you horizontal and with WAAS vertical guidance.        

                                                            ii.      Radar – device that detects objects by the use of sound waves

1.      Primary – radar bounces off an object and returns to the station

2.      Secondary – radar is received and the transponder responds with a specific signal

3.      TRACON – Used for class B and C

4.      ARTCC – used for class A

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (O 3-33)

    1. Logbook entries and Certificate Entry

                                                              i.      Student Pilot Endorsements

1.       Pre-solo aeronautical knowledge test

2.      Pre-solo flight training

a.       Day

b.      Night

3.      Solo flight (every 90 days)

4.      Solo Takeoffs and landings at another airport less than 25 nm away

5.      Initial solo x-c

6.      solo x-c’s

7.      solo into class B

a.       or an airport within the B territory

                                                            ii.      Prior to first Solo

1.      logbook endorsement for satisfactory completion of the pre-solo aeronautical exam

2.      “ pre-solo training in make and model

3.      Endorsement on their student pilot certificate for make and model of A/C flown. 

                                                          iii.      Prior to first Solo X-C

1.      Logbook endorsement for required solo X-C training in make and model

2.      Logbook endorsement for the specific X-C to be flown.

3.      Endorsement on their student pilots certificate for the specific category to be flown

4.      Certify that the X-c planning is complete and reliable.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (O 3-35)

                                                          iv.      Additional Endorsements that can be given

1.      Flight Review

2.      Instrument Proficiency Check

3.      To act as PIC of a complex A/c, high performance A/c, pressurized A/c, tail wheel, act as PIC if the PIC is not hold appropriate Category and class rating.

4.      Retesting after a failed knowledge or practical test.

  1. Airworthiness Requirements
    1. What Instruments and equipment are required for VFR.

                                                              i.      T – tachometer

                                                            ii.      O – Oil Pressure Gauge

                                                          iii.      M – Manifold Pressure Gauge

                                                          iv.      A – Altimeter

                                                            v.      T – Temp gauge for liquid cooled Engines

                                                          vi.      O – Oil Temp gauge for air cooled engines

                                                        vii.      F – Fuel Gauge

                                                      viii.      L – Landing Gear light if retractable

                                                          ix.      A – Airspeed Indicator

                                                            x.      A – Anti-collision light system

                                                          xi.      M – Magnetic compass

                                                        xii.      E -ELT

                                                      xiii.      S –Seat belts + shoulder harness

    1. VFR NIGHT

                                                              i.      F - fuses

                                                            ii.      L – Landing Light

                                                          iii.      A – Anti-collision lights

                                                          iv.      P – Pulse Lights

                                                            v.      S – Source of electrical Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (O 3-38)

    1. Inoperative equipment

                                                              i.      14 CFR Part 91 – Inoperative Equipment not essential for Flight

1.      MEL 14 CFR Part 91.213 (a)

a.       May continue to operate

b.      Use of MEL becomes mandatory as if it were the STC for that A/C

2.      Without MEL 14 CFR Part 91.213 (d)

a.       Flight cancelled

b.      Pilot determines if the equipment is required by AD’s or CFR’s

c.       MX found to defer item

d.      Placard INOP

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (AC 61-23C)(O 3-39)

                                                            ii.      Special Flight Permit

1.      If an aircraft doesn’t meet the airworthiness requirements but is able to make a specific flight an FAA inspector may sign someone off for a SFP.

a.       Usually flying it somewhere for MX

b.      Contact FSDO to get one.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (AC 61-23C)(O 3-39)

                                                          iii.      AD

1.      Primary medium for FSDO to contact pilots

2.      Compliance needed Immediately

3.      Compliance needed soon

                                                          iv.      Required MX inspections

1.      Annual or 100 hour (for hire)

a.       Record must be kept in aircraft logbooks

2.      Pitot/Static System check (IFR)

a.       24 months

b.      Record must be kept in aircraft logbook

3.      Transponder

a.       24 months

b.      Record must be kept in aircraft logbook

4.      Altimeter (IFR)

a.       24 months

b.      Record must be kept in aircraft logbook

5.      VOR Check (IFR)

a.       30 days prior

6.      ELT

a.       12 months after inspection

                                                                                                                                                                                                              i.      (AC 61-23C)(O 3-41)